Home > Chapters > Chapter Management > Chapter Handbook > National Research Program

National Research Program

PART I – CHAPTER RESEARCH PROGRAM

1. WHY CHAPTER RESEARCH?

“I hold every man a debtor to his profession!” In this concise sentence, Francis Bacon, the renowned dm scientist and philosopher, levied a -heavy burden upon each individual who aspires to professional status. And one of the most challenging and rewarding ways of discharging that debt is through developing an active research program.

The ASMC, in particular, is fortunate in having a number of members who possess special qualifications and unique perspectives. If a way is developed to channel this talent into research endeavors, the entire military comptrollership community will reap professional benefits. The conduct of successful research also is personally rewarding. Enthusiasm and fulfillment flow from research and a researcher’s ability to expand the body of professional knowledge.

2. THE CHALLENGE OF CHAPTER RESEARCH

Research is work; it requires both personal dedication and the repeated stimulation or even recruitment of researchers. This is best accomplished at local chapter level. However, a vigorous program will reward productive members, provide a drawing card for potential members, contribute a stimulating set of chapter activities for the program year, and help meet the requirements of various professional certification and continuing education programs.

Chapters interested in harnessing member vitality for such undertakings first should name a Chapter Research Committee Chairperson to develop the needed focus and environment. That person’s challenge is to create an institution eager to innovate — to develop a team of researchers eager to respond. While a vigorous program may not blossom in one season, it can be done. And the ASMC National Research Committee (NRC) is available to support and encourage local efforts. Together, we can provide all ASMC members both with the opportunities for meaningful research and the fruits resulting from such professional endeavor.

3. THE CHAPTER RESEARCH PROGRAM

On page 9 of his 1974 book entitled Practical Research – Planning and Design, author Paul D, Leedy stated that research simply is a systematic quest for undiscovered truth. A major method of conducting that systematic search is analysis, i.e., determining essential features and their interrelationships.

The analysis of a chapter research program should: (1) systematically examine and identify the key components of the program, (2) determine the appropriate strategies to be pursued in order to achieve program objectives, and (3) assemble the components and strategies into an integrated, productive program. The key components of program development are (1) a plan, (2) a set of researchable problems, and (3) a group of dedicated problem-solvers.

4. THE CHAIRPERSON’S ROLE

The role of the Research Committee Chairperson is to integrate these three components and implement the program. To assure success, the chapter board should select a person who is both knowledgeable of the research program and able to obtain and motivate researchers throughout the year. To ensure that a productive program emerges, the chairperson also should have good organizational skills and the ability to set and achieve milestones.

5. PEOPLE AND MOTIVATION

Newsletter advertising produces no more volunteers than it does researchable problems. But a stimulating research program can provide both a challenge and a solution (payoff). Some members may be challenged by seeking the key to the seemingly insoluble. Others may find that the accompanying recognition derived from the successful culmination of research can dissolve bureaucratic stumbling blocks on the job or yield improved productivity. Still others may find that their ASMC membership is enhanced by their involvement in activities beyond monthly meetings. These and other avenues of motivation must be explored and exploited. Otherwise, the “people” part of the program may not flourish.

To maximize the program’s potential, look beyond the chapter membership for help. Do not overlook, nor underestimate, the assistance that can be furnished by non-members. Professionals in the private sector such as Certified Public Accountants, Certified Management Accountants or EDP auditors have a myriad of talents. The opportunity to work with ASMC members from many Services and agencies may provide private sector counterparts with a very pragmatic stimulus to participate. Pursue them positively by writing to the partners in charge of local offices or firms.

Also seek out professors and business students in nearby institutions of higher learning. These resources often go untapped. Yet their time, talents and careers are devoted to the pursuit and exposition of knowledge. All academics have a powerful predisposition to participate, known as “publish or perish.’” Tapping this resource can be the making of your program.

6. THE CHAPTER RESEARCH PROCESS

The successful Chairperson will need to analyze, organize, motivate, evaluate and communicate – in short, become a program manager. Success requires plenty of lead time.

To help an incoming chairperson to get a “running start,’ it may be desirable to establish prior service on the committee as a prerequisite to assuming the chair. Or it may be useful to consider a two-year tenure if results warrant an extension. In any event, the chapter research process should start early in the chapter year. A long lead time is essential to develop a comprehensive program. The performance of research projects will be unduly compacted if not begun early and communicated to the NRC.

7. RESEARCH FORUM

It is planned that the topic of research — its significance and procedures — be included as a workshop annually at each ASMC Professional Development Institute. Chapter research chairpersons and potential researchers should make every effort to attend such workshops when offered.

PART II

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS

The ASMC Research Program is conducted under the guidance of the National Research Committee (NRC). The NRC has been organized to assist individuals or teams wishing to perform research under the aegis of the ASMC research program; however, promotion of the research endeavor is an important role for the local ASMC chapter, as discussed in Part II.

Individuals or teams wishing to perform research for recognition by the society (Part VII) should submit a research proposal to the NRC in the appropriate format. The NRC will appoint a Project Subcommittee, consisting of at least two regular or adjunct members of the NRC. The chairperson of this subcommittee will serve as the researcher’s point of contact with the NRC. The subcommittee will evaluate the acceptability of the proposed project and provide guidance to the researcher(s) on methodology, content and style of the final written product. The NRC also has designed appropriate formats to assist the researcher(s) in preparing the final report.

PART III

SEARCHING FOR AND SELECTING A RESEARCH TOPIC

Several points should be considered in the process of selecting an area for research.

  1. The Research topic should be interesting. Generally, ASMC is looking for research that contributes to the body of knowledge in any of the military comptrollership disciplines or to ASMC as an organization. The topic should motivate the researcher(s) to pursue the project vigorously.
     
  2. The topic Should Be Researchable. Materials should be available in the open literature (e.g., articles, books, or reports), Data should be 2ccetsible. Difficulties may be encountered if the data sought are classified, proprietary, sensitive, highly controlled, or restricted in their usage. The NRC cannot consider proposals or reports that contain classified information.In order to gain some understanding for the literature available, the researcher(s) should check such sources as the Business Periodicals Index and the Accountant’s Index. The researcher(s) also should check the indexes or copies of key periodicals in their proposed area of research.
     
  3. There Should Be -a Perceived Need for the Research. This need may take one of several forms and result in one or more of the following:
    1. Contributing to resolving a known problem;
    2. Putting a problem in perspective;
    3. Evaluating a policy or procedure;
    4. Tracing the history of management events and decisions or making observations concerning the implications of these decisions;
    5. Developing a model or assessment of an existing model;
    6. Developing an implementation methodology; or
    7. Developing a final product that might be a model, case analysis, computer program or process.

    The process of research might be accomplished by analyzing a category of events, assessing the impact of certain issues, exploring how to accomplish something, analyzing a situation or examining various courses of action. The researcher(s) may explore the need for research by communicating with other members of their ASMC chapter, authorities in the field, or the NRC.
     

  4. Select a Variety of Resources. Examples include:
    1. Current or previous tours of duty the researcher(s) may have had in the discipline where there are issues of interest;
    2. Materials from academic courses or job-related training; or
    3. Suggestions from the ASMC Chapter research coordinator.
    4. Student “think papers” and other written products of the Professional Military Comptrollers School.

    The researcher(s) also may:
     

    1. Review the periodicals in their field for the current issues being discussed;
    2. Scan sections entitled “Topics for Further Research” in completed theses or dissertations in the field;
    3. Contact the principal offices or professional associations in the field to determine if they have any issues in need of study;
    4. Review topics listings that indicate areas of research (e.g., Air Force Business Research Management Center Catalog of Logistics Issues); or
    5. Scan the proceedings of research symposia to identify research being performed or needed.

    Once a topic area is selected, the researcher(s) should get as much exposure as possible to the literature — major studies, journal articles, and books. Customized subject matter bibliographies may be obtained from various sources (e.g., the Defense Logistics Studies Information Exchange (DLSEE), the Defense Technical Information System (DTIC), and similar organizations). Some research groups also publish lists of their studies and reports (e.g., Rand, Center for Naval Research (CNR) and the Logistics Management Institute (LMI)),

    The researcher(s) should establish limits for the subject being researched and carefully define the research boundary or scope. The key to good topic selection is identifying a subject limited enough to allow exhaustive research, yet wide enough to provide room for the researcher(s) to develop concepts, ideas or propositions.

PART IV

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

The proposal (Appendix A) is the key document in preparing for the research process. It performs several important functions in the process of communicating research activities.

  1. The proposal focuses the researcher(s) research effort. It requires the researcher(s) to: (1) develop a specific research question and subsidiary research questions (hypotheses), (2) identify the methodologies to be employed in the research and the particular scope and limitations of the effort; and (3) give serious consideration to the items that may be major problems later in the process.
     
  2. The proposal, once accepted, acts as an agreement between the researcher(s) and the Project Subcommittee regarding the areas to be investigated and the depth of analysis involved. It is intended to eliminate misunderstandings or surprises for both parties.
     
  3. The proposal sets forth a schedule of key milestones to be reached and can be used to evaluate progress in completing the project.
     
  4. Any changes that become necessary are facilitated by referring to the proposal (e.g., changes in research design or methodology).
     
  5. The proposal identifies resources needed to complete the research and lays out the nature and extent of resources a potential sponsor may have to contribute.
     
  6. The proposal serves as a record for planning the research paper and is maintained on file by the Project Subcommittee.
     
  7. The preliminary outline in the proposal is essential in organizing the detailed research as assisting the researcher(s) in identifying the direction the effort should take. The outline also assists in tracking both accomplishments and remaining tasks. Note: the preliminary outline is flexible; it most likely will change as the researcher(s) develop a greater knowledge of the topic, rearrange priorities, or encounter yet unknown limitations.
     
  8. The proposal assists in identifying the pertinent literature base and focuses attention on the examination of open literature.

PART V

PROPOSALS FOR FUNDED RESEARCH

In singular instances, a proposed research topic may be of such significance that the ASMC National Executive Board, upon recommendation of the NRC, may agree to underwrite part or all of the expenses associated with that research. In order to receive consideration. the researcher(s) and/or the sponsoring chapter, must submit a Proposal for Research, an outline of which may be found at Appendix B.

Proposals for Funded Research may be submitted at any time during the year to the ASMC National Headquarters, ATTN: Research Committee. Any consideration for award of a research stipend is subject to the availability of funds as determined by the ASMC National Executive Board.

PART VI

MAJOR SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH PAPER

This part of the handbook gives guidance on the structure of a research paper. Not all papers look alike! Thus, the researcher(s) need not necessarily follow this structure precisely. The finished product is expected to conform to some general rules concerning format and style but, since each researcher or team conducts research on different topics or with varying perspectives on a topic, the report format may vary.

The text below addresses in detail the data analytical format. Outlines of alternative formats are included at Appendix C. The length of a paper varies with the breadth of the research questions, the methodologies selected for data collection and analysis, the type of data presented, and the extent to which common knowledge references can be used. The actual writing of the paper does not have to be accomplished in sequence. In fact, it may be more appropriate to “rough out” an introduction, write the main body of the paper first, and save the finished introduction for last.

  1. Abstract. The purpose of the abstract is to enable other researchers to determine if the paper is relevant to them. An abstract should be no longer than 18 typewritten lines and should include the following:
    1. The nature of the issue or problem researched;
    2. The focus of the thesis and its objectives;
    3. The major conclusions drawn from the research; and
    4. The major recommendations.

    If there is room, mention should be made of any important contribution, such as the development of a model or guide. Rather than an abstract, it may be appropriate to prepare an Executive Summary. An executive summary normally is a single page (or less) capsule of the significant points contained in the paper. It is provided whenever a busy decision-maker may be expected to act on the researcher(s) findings.
     

  2. Introduction. The purpose of the introduction is to set the scene — to prepare the reader for what is to come. The chapter first should identify the purpose and direction of the paper. The researcher(s) should explain the approach to the research question and how the research was performed. The importance of the research to the general body of knowledge in the selected field should be explained. The chapter also contains a preliminary summary of the research findings, conclusions and recommendations.The introductory chapter includes sections that present a general description of the project, the objectives of the research, the research question(s), the scope, limitations and assumptions of the research project, a brief description of the research methodology, a literature review, a list of definitions and abbreviations, a summary of findings, and a description of the organization of the paper.
     

    1. Background. This section briefly identifies the area of research and the reason why it was chosen. The opening of this section should provide the broad environment within which the research was conducted. The section typically describes the field of study and identifies the importance of the research effort and how it fits into the general scheme of the field of study.
       
    2. Objectives. This section is more specific. It tells the reader in more precise terms what is being examined.
       
    3. The Research Question. The research question serves as the logical extension of the objectives section. The researcher(s) should present the primary and subsidiary research questions and report any changes. Research questions may change during the course of the research effort due to (a) data not being available, (b) a topic determined to be too broad, or (c) the surfacing of an issue more appropriate or relevant issue to the data collected.
       
    4. Scope, Limitations and Assumptions. Three separate issues are identified in this section, Scope identifies the boundaries of the subject: what was focused upon, what was omitted, and a brief explanation of the researcher(s) rationale for those choices. In contrast to the conscious definition of the research effort expressed in the Scope paragraph, the Limitations paragraph addresses any extraneous factors that limited the research effort, e.g., the unavailability of certain data, regulations or laws that are being amended, or the uncertain impact of new regulations. The Assumptions paragraph cites the environmental characteristics of the research topic. Some examples of assumptions are: (a) an existing statute, (b) organizational stability as a given, (c) continuity of policy, or (d) absence of crises.
       
    5. Literature, Review and Methodology. Since the research effort may be based upon the results of previous research, this section provides a brief discussion of the significance of that literature to the current study. The researcher(s) also -should briefly describe the research methods employed.
       
    6. Definitions and Abbreviations. Concepts embraced in a study often require working definitions and certain terms may have several economic, theoretical or business meanings. The section should be used to define the appropriate application of these terms, If the list becomes extensive, it should be presented as a glossary in an appendix. A glossary for abbreviations and acronyms also may be included in an appendix.
       
    7. Summary of Findings. At this point in the paper, it is appropriate to summarize briefly the major findings of the study. When successfully employed, this method allows the reader to appreciate the issues as they develop in the paper.
       
    8. Organization of Study. This section provides a brief description of content in the remaining chapters of the paper and how they interrelate. Such a description at this point gives the reader a broad perspective of the paper flow and expectations for the forthcoming presentation of data.

     

  3. Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. At this point, the researcher(s) present a review of literature pertinent to the theoretical framework of the research. If a model has been developed, its conceptual aspects should be discussed, as well as the literature pertinent to the model. At this juncture in the paper (1) the conceptual framework for the study is discussed and (2) the contribution of the research to the general body of knowledge in the field is noted.
     
  4. Background. This chapter is much like the Literature Review chapter and, in some instances, may be combined with that chapter or eliminated entirely if the background section in the Introduction contains sufficient detail. The important difference from previous sections is that the background orients the reader to specific background issues rather than the general theoretical issues important to the research results. A chronology of events that traces the history of an issue permits the researcher(s) to explore how the issue developed into its current circumstances.
     
  5. Methodology. This chapter addresses the methods used for collecting the research data and the structure of the analysis. Examples of research methods include archival research, survey methods, observational procedures or experimental procedures. If brief, any personal or telephone interviews questions should be presented in the text; and lengthy interview protocols should be presented as an appendix. It is to describe the sample size and demographics. The chapter also is used to justify and explain changes in methodology, The bibliography at Appendix C of this handbook includes research texts and articles that should prove helpful in developing various methods for the conduct of research.
     
  6. Presentation of Data Collected. This chapter contains the researcher(s) presentation of the facts, to include a full description of any measuring devices used in the research effort. Any tables or charts that depict the nature of the data or the frequency of events should be presented. Techniques include time lines, decision trees, figures and graphs, If a questionnaire was used for collecting data, a table of the responses or simply a report of responses could be included. Specific case examples often are included as a method of illustrating the data results.
     
  7. Data Analysis and Interpretation. The appropriate sequence for this chapter begins with a restatement of the problem or issue of concern. Inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, or an acceptable combination of the two, should be employed in this interpretive chapter. The style of presentation is an important concern. While writing, the researcher(s) should make a strong distinction between analysis or interpretation of the facts and the facts or opinions derived from the research literature, interviews or questionnaires. Phrases such as ‘the researcher observes that” could introduce the researcher(s) original analysis. The chapter ultimately should show the line between observations and interpretations and the implications of those interpretations.
     
  8. Conclusions and Recommendations. This last chapter draws the report together, presents conclusions that logically can be drawn, and identifies the results so that the reader easily can grasp the main ideas and concepts of the study. Conclusions, rather than being elaborate, should be concise interpretations of the facts as they were presented. This is not the place to present new information. The analysis section should provide sufficient data to substantiate the conclusions. Most of the conclusions will seem obvious and win flow easily from the research study. Recommendations, like conclusions, should be short, concise and practical statements followed by an explanation. The researcher(s) should identify what is intended to be resolved and a manner in which it can be implemented. Sweeping statements that ignore reality must be avoided.Following the discussion of conclusions and recommendations, it is useful to include some summary paragraphs that relate findings to the original research question. For issues that fall outside the present research area, but could have a significant influence in the field, mention should be made of Areas for Further Research, such issues are ones that warrant future in-depth research, but were peripheral to the study at hand.
     

    1. Appendices. Appendices are useful for presenting pertinent data that were not germane to the body of the report, but that would improve the reader’s understanding of the research. They could include glossaries (in alphabetical order by terms, acronyms or abbreviations); interview questions with aggregated responses; copies of letters of introduction or pertinent documents such as memoranda, regulations, statutes, reports, point papers not =fly obtained by the reader; and case studies too long for inclusion in the body of the report. Unless anonymity was assured, the names of interviewees and their respective organizations also should be listed. Other items, such as technical notes to explain points that are not generally understood, or a tabulation of the chronology of reports or studies, also are useful additions.
       
    2. Bibliography, 7his section includes both research references and references reviewed but not cited.

PART VII

FORMAT

As identified in the bibliography at Appendix D, there are a number of style manuals available for review. There are differing schools of thought on format; thus, no single format is mandated by ASMC. However, once the researcher(s) selects a style, it should be consistently used throughout the report. This part presents guidance on elements commonly found in theses and other formal written reports.

  1. Acknowledgments. The researcher(s) certainly may acknowledge any assistance received from others, such as family, readers or clerical support personnel. However, this section is not an essential element of style for ASMC research papers.
     
  2. Table of Contents and List of Tables. The Table of Contents should list in a consistent manner all chapters, section headings and sub-headings. It seldom is necessary to detail below a third order heading. The List of Tables merely lists table numbers, subjects and associated page numbers.
     
  3. Charts, Figures, Graph and Tables. These terms, together with other tabulated materials, flow charts, graphical analyses and organizational charts all are used to illustrate h data. As a matter of form, the researcher(s) should introduce and clearly discuss each illustration before it is graphically portrayed. A graphic presentation must be labeled as to subject and source and be readable and neat. Letter or laser quality computer graphics are adequate, although the researcher(s) may choose to use professionally prepared graphic presentations.
     
  4. References, Footnotes and Bibliography. The researcher(s) should document carefully all materials that are not general knowledge or not original ideas. References should be used whenever another person’s ideas are being quoted, paraphrased or restated in the researcher(s) own words. Quotations, if they extend over three typewritten lines, must be indented and single spaced with no quotation marks, If footnotes are used, they normally are @ on the same page as the reference cited. Citations should conform to the style manual chosen and be consistent throughout the paper. Footnotes (or endnotes) may be used to provide explanatory or clarifying comments not central to the main discussion.
     
  5. Continuity. The discussion in a report should have a logical flow. Consequently, the researcher(s) must reread the text, not as author but as first-time reader, to (1) identify any problems f readability, missing materials or gaps in the content, and (3) appropriate organization of the topics. For example, certain material may be better treated if introduced at a different point in the paper or some discussion may be streamlined by moving portions to an appendix.
     
  6. Common Errors, There have been a number of common errors observed over time in formal report writing that are shared below as do’s and don’ts:
    • Don’t begin sentences with abbreviations, acronyms or arabic numbers.
    • Don’t use numerals for numbers less than ten unless they appear in a table, chart, or list. The numbers nine and below should be spelled out; show numbers that are double digit or greater as numerals.
    • Don’t use quotation marks around block quotations.
    • Don’t use incomplete sentences,
    • Don’t use sentences that are long and complicated,
    • Don’t use jargon.
    • Do watch for disagreement between subject and verb.
    • Do be certain of spelling and punctuation.
    • Do be wary of split infinitives.

PART VIII

RECOGNITION

ASMC recognition accorded to research efforts is the responsibility of the NRC. The levels of recognition were developed to encourage the conduct and appropriate presentation of research that enhances the body of knowledge in one or more of the comptrollership disciplines.

For the most part, research is an individual (or team) initiative and the principal forms of recognition are publication of worthy papers in the Armed Forces Comptroller, and (2) award(s) to researcher(s) of any completed papers deemed by the ASMC National Research Committee to be significant or singularly outstanding.

In addition, in order to recognize that ASMC chapters play a key role in determining research topics, identifying researchers and providing local encouragement, the sponsoring chapters of researchers may be awarded points under the Chapter Competition Program as follows:

  • 100 points in the year a submitted research proposal is approved by the Research Committee.
  • 300 points in the year that a completed research report is approved by the Research Committee.
  • An additional 100 points (maximum 400 for completed research) for reports deemed by Research Committee to provide a significant contribution the body of knowledge in any of the military comptrollership disciplines or to ASMC as an organization.

Of those reports contributing to the body of knowledge, an additional 100 points (maximum 500 for completed research) for any report deemed by the Research Committee to be singularly outstanding.

The primary focus is to recognize the research of topics germane to ASMC conducted by ASMC members. However, “secondary’ research efforts that are performed by ASMC members for other purposes may be considered, e.g., Professional Military Comptrollership School, Air Force Institute of Technology, or a masters degree program. However, points under the Chapter Competition Program for submission of these secondary papers is limited to a maximum of 100 points per paper and 300 points per competition year. Research proposals and completed research projects may be submitted at any time during the year to the ASMC National Headquarters, ATTN: Research Committee. For proposals, the Committee will assign a mentor to advise the researcher(s) in conducting and documenting approved research. For the purpose of determining points under the Chapter Competition Program, all research documentation must be received no later than 15 February of the current competition year.

APPENDIX A

RESEARCH PROPOSAL FORMAT

  1. General Information
    1. Name(s):
    2. Organization(s):
    3. Commercial and AUTOVON Phone Numbers:
    4. ASMC Chapter (if any):
    5. Date Submitted:
       
  2. Area of Research. Identify the proposed area of research in brief terms and state the proposed title of the paper. The exact title can be changed as the research and writing progress. A more detailed discussion is required in D, below.
     
  3. Research Questions. Identify the primary research question and subsidiary questions. This should be an explicit statement of the questions the research will seek to answer. The primary research question should be broad enough to cover the entire spectrum of the proposed research activity. Subsidiary research questions divide the primary question into logical research subsections. While the questions may be redefined as the research progresses, the initial objective should be made very specific.
     
  4. Discussion. Discuss briefly the background leading up to the study. Include the major issues and concepts involved, the key problems related to this area, policy and operational considerations and implications, and the theoretical framework within which the study will be conducted.
     
  5. Scope of the Study. Discuss the main thrust of the study (i.e., the areas that specifically will be investigated or excluded), the type of study (e.g., cash study; implementation guide; development of a model; assessment of a model, policy or management guide), and any known limitations of the study.
     
  6. Methodology. Explain the methodology by which the research data will be collected and the specific research techniques that will be used to analyze the data and answer the research questions. The study should be conducted within the context of some recognized, valid model of problem solving and should use appropriate methods of collecting and analyzing data relevant to the problem. For example, if the problem were to determine the optimal replacement cycle for lights on navigational buoys, the conceptual foundation (model) might be the present value of life cycle cost, The research method then might include a collection of actual data on the amounts of all relevant costs, statistical analysis to determine the expected value of such costs, and discounting to determine the lowest present value of all alternative life cycle cost patterns.Describe the general kinds of information to be used, the sources from which data will be collected, and the methodology to be used in collecting the data. Be specific in identifying the method(s) of research, e.g. survey questionnaires, interviews, observational procedures; why the method(s) selected are appropriate; and what types of individuals or organizations will be approached. Discuss how any limitations identified in Part E, above, will affect your methodology or data sources. As applicable, briefly list the kinds of questions you intend to include in your questionnaire or which you expect to use during interviews.
     
  7. Benefits of Study. State the contribution expected from your research efforts, what individuals or organizations would use the results, and what problems or issues you feel will be addressed and or resolved.
     
  8. Chapter Outline. Identify tentative chapter headings and provide a brief discussion of chapter content.
     
  9. Schedule. Provide a tentative list of target dates identified as additive days after NRC Project Subcommittee approval (e.g., +30 … ). You will not be held strictly to this schedule; it merely is a means of planning for yourself and conveying to the NRC when you might complete major milestones of the study effort. It is important to recognize that the various stages of effort must occur in a logical sequence and that they take varying amounts of time. At a minimum, give the dates during which the following activities will be accomplished:
    • Comprehensive Review of Literature
    • Construct Research Design
    • Conduct Research/Travel
    • Analyze/Interpret Data
    • Draft Report
    • Submit Report for Project Subcommittee Review
       
  10. Cost. Quantify any costs (e.g., communications, travel, data capture and analysis, or clerical support) that you expect to incur. Indicate your source of funding, e.g., personal, ASMC chapter, or organization of assignment. This information will be helpful to the NRC in gauging whether the ASMC should establish a program to provide funding in support of worthy research efforts.
     
  11. Preliminary Bibliography. Provide a listing of representative materials consulted during your preliminary research search. Include references to the problem or issue to be studied, the organization or other context in which it arises, and the research method(s) to be used. Identify any prior studies of a similar nature.

APPENDIX B

PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH FUNDING

Cover Page

  1. Title:
  2. Period of the Proposed Research:
  3. Proposed Budget:
  4. Proposed Researcher(s):
  5. Brief Description: (125 words or less)
  6. Review and Recommended Approval: (Optional; as appropriate)

Attachments of Supplementary Material

  1. Work Statement
    1. Background
    2. Project Description
    3. Proposed Work
    4. References
       
  2. Budget
    1. Personnel (by name; cost per day x number of research days = total)
    2. Travel (by trip)
    3. Equipment
      1. Computer time (if any)
      2. Leases (if any)
    4. Other (explain and quantify)
    5. Total
       
  3. Schedule Proposed Events and Milestones Through Final Submission
     
  4. Curriculum Vitae Biographical Sketch (es) of the Proposed Researcher(s)

APPENDIX C

ALTERNATIVE REPORT FORMATS

  1. The Issue Analysis Thesis
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Introduction: Overview/Outline of the Debate
    3. Major Issues
    4. Issue # 1: Background, ‘Theory, Politics
    5. Issue #2: Background, Theory, Politics
    6. Issue #3: Background, ‘Theory, Politics
    7. Conclusions and Implications
       
  2. The Management Problem Analysis Thesis
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Introduction
    3. Background of the Problem
    4. Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
    5. Methodology and Data
    6. Analysis
    7. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
       
  3. The Case History Thesis
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Introduction: Significance of Events, Methods and Sources
    3. Literature Review
    4. Historical Narrative, Discoursive Chronology
    5. Conceptual Interpretation, Historical Analysis
    6. Implications, Conclusions and Recommendations
       
  4. The Conceptual Thesis
    1. Table of Contents
    2. Introduction: the Phenomenon, Problem, Situation or Interest
    3. Literature Review or prior Research
    4. Presentation of New Theory, Model or Concept
    5. Implications, Consequences, Results of Theory
    6. Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research

APPENDIX D

RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY

Methodology

Bailey, Kenneth D. Methods of Social Research. 3d ed. 608p, 1987, [text ed. 27,95 (ISBN 0-02-901450-6), Free Pr,]

Balsley, Howard L,,) and Vernon T, Clover. Business Research Methods. 4th ed. (Business Ser.), (Ills.), 500p, Apr. 1988. [text ed. 34.00 (ISBN 0-942280-45-8); 38.95. Pub. Horizons.]

Bordens, Kenneth S., and Bruce B, Abbott, Research Design & Methods:- A Process Approach. 512p. Feb. 1988. [text ed. 31.95 (ISBN 0-87487-794-X). Mayfield Pub.]

Bradburn, Norman M., and Seymour Sudman. Improving Interview Method & Questionnaire Design: Response Effects to Threatening Questions in Survey Research. LC 79-83569. (Social & Behavioral Science Ser.). (Illus.). 1979. [text ed. 25.95x (ISBN 0-87589-402-x), Jossey-Bass.]

Buckley, John W. et al. Research Methodology & Business Decisions. 89P. [9.95 (ISBN 0-86641-039-2t 7581). National Ass'n of Accountants.]

Campbell, Donald T., and Julian C. Stanley. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Rand McNally, 1963. [LC 81-80806. 1966 pap. text ed. 13.95 (ISBN 0-395-30787-2).

Campbell, John P., Richard L. Daft, and Charles L. Hulin. What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions, (Studying Organizations: Innovations in Methodology). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982. HD/30.4/C35/1982.

Caplovitz, David. Stages of Social Research. 434p. 1983. [24.95x (ISBN 0-471-08780-5, Pub by Wiley-Interscience). Wiley.]

Cook, 7tomas D. and Charles S. Reichardt. (eds.). Qualitative & Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research. LC 79-20962. (Sage Research Progress Ser. in Evaluation: Vol. 1). (illus.). 160p. 1979. [pap. 9.95 (ISBN 0-8039-1301-x). Sage.]

Dexter, Lewis A. Elite and Specialized Interviewing. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970, H62/D5.

Emory, C. William. Business Research Methods. 3d. ed. Irwin, 1985. [35.50x (ISBN 0-256-03009-x). Irwin]

Forcew, D, , and S, Richter. Social Research Methods. (Illus.). 1973. [text ed. 28.95 (ISBN 0-13-818237-x). P-H.]

Glass,, Gene V. et al, Meta-Analysis in Social Research. LC 81-5673. (Illus.). 272p. 1981, [28.00 (ISBN 0-8039-9700-0). Sage.) Grew, Paul. et al. Research for Marketing Decisions. 5th ed. (Illus.). 768p. Mar. 1988. [text ad. 40,33 (ISBN 0-13-774175-8). P-H,]

Haldn, Catherine. Research Design: Strategies & Choices in the Design of Social Research. (Con@mry Social Research Ser.: NO. 13). 240p. 1987. [text ed. 34.95x (ISBN 0-04-312031-8); pap. text ed. 14.95x (ISBN 0-04-312032-6). Allen Unwin.]

Hunter, John L., Frank L. Schmidt, and Gregg B. Jackson. Meta-Analysis, Cumulating Research Findings Across Studies. (Studying Organizations in Methodology). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982. HD/30.4/H86/1982. (pap. 9.95 (ISBN 0-8039-1864-x) Sage]

Jones, Russell A. Research Methods in the Social & Behavioral Sciences. LC 85-14247. (Mus.) 400p. (Orig.). 1985. [text ed. 27.95x (ISBN 0-87893-370-0), Sinauer Assoc.]

Kerlinger, Frederick N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. 3d. ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986. BF/76.5/K3/1986.

Kerlinger, Frederick N. Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research. LC 73-3936. 1973. [text ed. 33.95 (ISBN 0-03-086211-6, HoItC). H Holt & Co.]

Kerlinger, Frederick N. Research Methods for the Social Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

Kidder, Louise, and Charles M. Judd. Research Methods in Social Relations. 5th ed. 560p. 1986. [text ed, 31.95 (ISBN 0-03-002473-0, Holt C). HR & W.]

Kress, George J. Marketing Research. 3d ed. (Illus.). 400p. 1988. [text ed. price not set (ISBN 0-13-559438-8), P-H.]

Nachmias, David, and Chava Nachmias. Research Methods in the Social Sciences. 3d ed. LC 86-60660. 1987. [text ed. write for info (ISBN 0-312-67627-1); write for info (ISBN 0-312-67628-x), St. Martin,]

Nagel, Stuart S,, and Marian Neef, Policy Analysis in Social Science Research. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1985. [242p. 1985. pap. text ed. 12.50 (ISBN 0-8191-4765-8). UPr of Amer,]

Payne, Stanely L, The Art of Asking Questions. Princeton University Press, 1980. (pap. 9.95x 1980 (ISBN 0-691-02821-4). Princeton U. Pr.]

Peterson. Marketing Research. 2d ed. 1998. [39,95 (ISBN 0-256-03711-6). Business Pubns,]

Poling, Alan, and R. Wayne Fugua. Research Methods in Applied Behavior Analysis: Issues & Advances, (Applied Clinical Psychology Ser.). 352p. 1986. [39.50x (ISBN 0-306-42127-5, Plenum Pr.). Plenum u 11

Preston, Lee E,, and William C, Frederick. (eds.). Research in Corpomte, Social Performance & Policy. Vol. 9. Sep. 1987. [56.50 (ISBN 0-89232-742-1).]

Reddy, C. R. Research Methodology in Social Sciences. (Illus.). ix. 212p. Aug. 1987. [text edo 30.00x (ISBN 81-7035-030-1), Pub. by Daya Pub Hse India.). Apt. lgks.]

Rigby, Paul H. Conceptual Foundations of Business Research. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1965, H62/R5.

Rosenthal, Robert, Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research. 514p. 1988. [pap. text ed. 19.95x enl. ed. (ISBN 0-8290-1043-2). Irvington.]

Rummel, J. Francis, and Wesley C. Ballaine. Research Methodology in Business. New York: Harper and Row, 1963. HD/20.3/R9.

Runcie, John F. Experiencing Social Research. Revised Edition, Dorsey Press, 1980.

Seymour, Daniel T. Marketing Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Marketing Professional. 250p. Oct. 1987. [29.50 (ISBN 0-917253-89-2). Probus Pub Co.]

Simon, Julian. Basic Research Methods in Social Science: The Art of Empirical Investigation. New York: Random House, 1969.

Selltiz, C., L.S, Wrightsman, and S. W. Cook. Research Methods in Social Relations. 3d ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976. H62/S46.

Stewart, Charles J., and William B. Cash, Jr. Interviewing: Principals and Pmctices. 5th ed. 304p. Aug. 1988. [pap. text ed. price not set (ISBN 0-697-04380-0); price not set. Wm. C, Brown.]

Stone, Eugene F. Research Methods in Organizational Behavior. Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing, 1978. HD/30.4/S86. [LC 77-18755 (Scott, Foresman Series in Management & Organizations. 1978 pap. text ed. write for info (ISBN 0-673-16140-4); pap. write for info (ISBN 0-673-16139-0). Scott F.]

Sudman, Seymour, and Norman M. Bradbum. Response Effects in Survey: A Review & Synthesis. LC 73-89510. (NORC monographs in Social Research Ser,: NO. 16). 264p. 1974o [I 1,50x (ISBN 0-202-30270-9), NORC,]

Sudman, Seymour, and Norman M. Bradbum. Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Designs LC 82-48065, (Social and Behavioral Science Ser.). 1982. [text ed. 22.95x (ISBN 0-87589-546-8). Jossey-Bass.]

VanMaanen, John, (edo), Qualitative Methodology. 272p. 1983. [pap. 12.95 (ISBN 0-8039-2117-9). Sage.]

Van Maanen, John, James M. Dabbs, Jr,, and Robert R. Faulkner. Varieties of Qualitative Research. (Studying organizations-, innovations in methodology). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982. HD/30.4/V36/1982,

Weiers, Ronald. Marketing Research. 2d ed. (Illus.). 688p. Mar. 1988. [text ed. 39.33 (ISBN 0-13-558479-5, P,H.]

Wolf, Fredic M. Meta-Analysis: Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis. (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences Ser.: NO. 59). 80p. (Orig.). 1986. (pap. text ed. 6.00 (ISBN 0-8039-2756-8). Sage.]

Wolins, Leroy. Research Mistakes in the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 86p. 1982. [pap. 6.95x (ISBN 0-8138-0361-6). Iowa St. U Pr.]

Zikmund, William G. Business Reseajrch Methods. 2d rev. ed. (Illus.). 736p. Jan. 1988. [text ed. price not set (ISBN 0-03-012362-3). Dryden Pr.]

Writing

APA Publication Manual. 3d ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. REF/BF/76.7/P83/1983.

Alvarez, Joseph A, The Elements of Technical Writing. 1986. [text ed. 1 1.00 (ISBN 0-12-055520); Aca Pr.]

Ballou, Howard, The Business Enterprise and a Subject for Research. Boston: Houghton hfifftt 1970,

Blum, Jack, and Carolyn Brinkman. Guide to the Whole Writing Process. 2d ed. LC 87-81366. 272p. Dec, 1987. [pap. write for info (ISBN 0-395-3801 1 - 1). IM avail. HM.

Buchman, Dian D., and Seli Grover. Writer's Digest Guide to Manuscript Formats. 192p. Nov, 1987. [16,95 (ISBN 0-89879-293-2), Writers Digest.]

Burt, Foffest D. Effective Writer. 130p, 1978. [pap, text ed. 2,95x (ISBN 0-89641-005-6). American Pr.]

Fielden, J., and R. Dulek, What Do You Mean I Can’t Write. Prentice-Hall. 1984

Fowler, R, Ramsey and Little, Brown Editors. Little, Brown Handbook. 3d ed. Boston: Little-Brown Co,, 1986, [text ed, write for info (ISBN 0-673-69209-0); write for info (ISBN 0-673-39210-4), Little] Francis, Roy G. 7be Rhetoric of Science. Minneapolis: University Minnesota Press, 1961.

Greenberg, Karen L. Effective Writing: Choices and Conventions. 384p. Dec. 1987. [pap, text ed. write for info (ISBN 0-312-00289-0); St. Martin.]

Harris, Tim, and Allan Rowe. Writing Practical English 2. 2d ed. 168p. Dec. 1987. (pap. text ed, 4.00 (ISBN 0-15-570923-2). HarBraceJ,]

Hense, G. From Murk to Masterpiece. Irwon. 1984.

Hodges, J. C., et al. Harbrace College Handbook. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. 1984.

Holcombe, H. W., and J, K. Stein. Writing for Decision Makers. Wadsworth. 1981. IA Pointe, Paul. Effective Writing: A How-To Manual. (Illus.). 150p. Apr. 1988. [pap. 12.95 (ISBN 0-89433-295-3). Petrocelli.] Management Update, Ltd. Staff. (ed.) Report Writing: A Practical Guide to Effective Report Writing Presented in Report Form. 112p. 1985. [49.00x (ISBN 0-946679-02-9). Pub by Mgmt Update UK); pap. 30.00x (ISBN 0-946679-01-0). State Mutual Bk.]

McGuire, Peter J., and Sara M. Putzell. Guide to Technical Writing. 415p. Jan. 1988. [pap. text ed. 19,00 (ISBN 0-15-530327-9, HC). HarBraceJ.] Perrin, Porter G. Writer’s Guide and Index to English. 7th ed, Revised by Wilma R. Ebbitt and David R. Ebbitt (1982). [text ed. write for info (ISBN 0-673-15542-0). Scott, Foresman,]

Pugh, Griffith Thompson. Guide to Research Writing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1968,

Trelease, Sam F, How to Write Scientific and Technical Papers. 1969. [pap. 6.95x (ISBN 0-262-70004-2). MIT Pr.]

Turabian, K. L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Turabian, X, L, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, ‘Meses, and Dissertations. (Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing), 5th ed, Revised and expanded by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. LB/2369M/1987, [pap, 7o95 (ISBN 0-226-81625-7). U of Chicago Pr.]

Turk, Christopher,, and John Kirkman. Effective Writing. 1982. [23.00x (ISBN 0-419-11670-2, NO. 6636). Pub. by E & FN Spon); pap. 9.95 (ISBN 0-419-11680-x, NO. 6635), Methuen Inc.]

Wresch, William, et al, Writing for the Twenty-First Century: Computers & Research Writing, 320p, Jan, 1988, [pap, 15,95 (ISBN 0-07-072051-7). McGraw.]

Zinser, William. On Writing Well. Harper and Row. 1980.

Reference

American Marketing Association. A Basic – Bibliography on Marketing Research. 3d ed, Robert Ferber et al, (eds), 1974, LC 74-187908. (American Marketing Association Bibliography Ser.: NO. 2), UW. 77.30 (2026667). Bks Demand UMI,]

Congressional Research Service. Digest of Public General Bills and Resolutions. Washington: Library of Congress. REF J/52/A3D5.

Ferber, Robert. Handbook of Marketing Research. (Illus.). 1344p. 1974. [84.95 (ISBN 0-07-020462-4) McGraw.]

Mann, Thomas. Guide to Library Research Methods. (Illus.). 208p, Oct. 1987. [16.95 (ISBN 0-19-504943-8). Oxford U Pr.]

Nagel, Stuart S. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Policy Studies. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1983, REF H/97/E6/1983.

Nagel, Stuart S., and Marian NeeL Policy Studies Directory. 1976. [pap, 8.00 (ISBN 0-918592-18-6). Policy Studies.]

Nagel, Stuart S,, and Marian Neef, (eds.). Policy Research Centers Directory. 1978. [pap, 8,00 (ISBN 0-918592-30-5). Policy Studies.]

Nagel, Stuart S. The Policy Studies Handbook. LC 80-7688. 240p. 1980, 27,OOX (ISBN 0-669-03777-x). Lexington Bks.]

Norback, Craig T. (ed.). Corporate Publications in Print. New York: McGraw – Hill Book Company, 1980, RED Z/7164/CS1/Z92,

Wasserman. Paul (ed,), Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources. 1st ed. (Kept up-to-date by periodic supplements). Editor: P. Wasserman continues. Executive’s guide to information sources, ISSN 0531-5271. Detroit: Gale Research, 1970, REF HF/5353/E5,

Wasserman, Paul, and Esther Herman (ods.). Library Bibliographies & Indexes: A Subject Guide to Resource Material Available from Libraries, Information Centers, Library Schoo s, and Library Associations in the U.S. and Canada. LC 74-26741, xxi. 301p. 1975. [88.OOX (ISBN 0-9103-0390-6), Gale,]

Woy, James (ed.). Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources: Supplement. 6th ed. 160p, 1987, ]80.00x (ISBN 0-8103-2115-7),

Nonprofit Website Design Custom Web Design